John Holdren, Obama’s science and technology adviser, told Popular Science: “We are committed to continuing our focus on ensuring that science, technology, innovation, and education have the support they deserve in order to fuel America’s economy, prepare the tech-savvy workforce and science-savvy citizenry of tomorrow, and meet the manifold challenges of health and biomedicine, energy, environment, and national security.”

Although the lion’s share of federal research dollars still goes to defense—56 percent in fiscal year 2012—7.5 percent is devoted explicitly to “general science and basic research.” Close to half of that finances the Department of Energy’s Office of Science, which supports work that advances the development of new fuels, materials, and technologies.