Members of the general synod passed a motion with a majority of 378 to eight, with 25 abstentions.
It paves the way for endorsement of women bishops alongside a "declaration" by bishops setting out guidance for parishes which reject female ministry.
The package also includes the creation of an ombudsman to rule on disputes.
It could see traditionalist clergy who oppose women bishops and refuse to co-operate with the ombudsman's inquiries facing disciplinary proceedings.
The vote comes after the synod failed to agree on the legislation by just six votes almost exactly a year ago.