In an online article of the journal Nature, a team of scientists led by Wistar's Ramin Shiekhattar, Ph.D., detail the mechanism by which long non-coding RNA-activators promote gene expression. They show how these RNA molecules help proteins in the cell to create a loop of DNA in order to open up genes for transcription. Their experiments have also described how particular ncRNA-a molecules are related to FG syndrome, a genetic disease linked to severe neurological and physical deficits. "These ncRNA-activators can activate specific genes by working with large protein complexes, filling in a big piece of the puzzle," said Shiekhattar, Herbert Kean, M.D., Family Professor and senior author of the study. "Our DNA encodes thousands of these ncRNA-activators, each with a role in timing the expression of a specific gene. As we learn more about non-coding RNA, I believe we will have a profoundly better understanding of how our genes function."

Their findings also provide a plausible mechanism of how locations along chromosomes, classically known as "enhancer" elements, can influence the expression ("reading") of genes located 5,000 to 100,000 base pairs ("letters") of DNA away. According to their findings, ncRNA-a molecules bind to large protein complexes to form a loop of DNA, which then opens up the gene to the molecular machinery that transcribes DNA. "There is an abundance of evidence to indicate that enhancers are critical components of transcription during embryonic development and disease process," Shiekhattar said.

"Non-coding RNAs are probably one of the earliest molecules that determine spatial and temporal gene expression in a developing embryo," Shiekhattar said. "These enhancers can help turn genes on and off as a growing embryo would need, but as we have seen in other genetic mechanisms of embryonic development, they can lead to cancer if they are switched on inappropriately in adult cells."