‘Battling the Gods: Atheism in the Ancient World,’ by Tim Whitmarsh

Dec 2, 2015

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The philosopher Sidney Morgenbesser, beloved by generations of Columbia University students (including me), was known for lines of wit that yielded nuggets of insight. He kept up his instructive shtick until the end, remarking to a colleague shortly before he died: “Why is God making me suffer so much? Just because I don’t believe in him?” For Morgenbesser, nothing worth pondering, including disbelief, could be entirely de-­paradoxed.

The major thesis of Tim Whitmarsh’s excellent “Battling the Gods” is that atheism — in all its nuanced varieties, even Morgenbesserian — isn’t a product of the modern age but rather reaches back to early Western intellectual tradition in the ancient Greek world.

The period that Whitmarsh covers is roughly 1,000 years, during which the Greek-speaking population emerged from illiteracy and anomie, became organized into independent city-states that spawned a high-achieving culture, were absorbed into the Macedonian Empire and then into the Roman Empire, and finally became Christianized. These momentous political shifts are efficiently traced, with astute commentary on their reflection in religious attitudes.

But the best part of “Battling the Gods” is the Greek chorus of atheists themselves, who speak distinctively throughout each of the political transformations — until, that is, the last of them, when they go silent. If you’ve been paying attention to contemporary atheists you might be startled by the familiarity of the ancient positions.

So here is Democritus in the fifth century B.C. — he who coined the term “atom,” from the Greek for “indivisible,” speculating that reality consisted of nothing but fundamental particles swirling randomly around in the void — propounding an anthropological theory of the origins of religious beliefs. Talk of “the gods,” he argued, comes naturally to primitive people who, unable yet to grasp the laws of nature, resort to fantastical storytelling. The exact titles of his works remain in doubt, but his naturalist explanation of the origins of conventional religion might have made use of Daniel C. Dennett’s title “Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon.”


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5 comments on “‘Battling the Gods: Atheism in the Ancient World,’ by Tim Whitmarsh

  • @OP – So here is Democritus in the fifth century B.C. . . . . .
    Talk of “the gods,” he argued, comes naturally to primitive people who, unable yet to grasp the laws of nature, resort to fantastical storytelling.

    It was that obvious even then!!!!



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  • Alan4discussion

    You beat me to it. It’s a great line.

    Also- I’m clicking away on the NY Times link thingie and nothing is happening. Is it just me? I’ll just go over there directly and try to read the rest of the article.



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  • No its not you….

    The right link isn’t there

    Try this

    Democritus, perhaps the first real scientist. Possibly the most important individual ever.

    Excellent review, especially at the end. Moral authorship is everyone’s day job.



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  • 5
    NearlyNakedApe says:

    It was that obvious even then!!!!

    Well it was obvious… to Democritus. But not everyone in the 5th century B.C. had the intellect of Democritus. It does however tend to prove that belief in supernatural deities is founded mostly in ignorance. It’s no accident that 96% of scientists in the US (and probably 100% in Europe) are non-believers.



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