Ancient infant ape skull sheds light on the ancestor of all humans and living apes

Aug 10, 2017

By Michael Price

Anthropologists have waited decades to find the complete cranium of a Miocene ape from Africa—one that lived in the hazy period before the human lineage split off from the common ancestors we share with chimpanzees some 7 million years ago. Now, scientists in Kenya have found their prize at last: an almost perfectly preserved skull roughly the size of a baseball. The catch? It’s from an infant. That means that although it can give scientists a rough idea of what the common ancestor to all living apes and humans would have looked like, drawing other meaningful conclusions could be challenging.

“This is the sort of thing that the fossil record loves to do to us,” says James Rossie, a biological anthropologist at the State University of New York in Stony Brook who wasn’t involved with the study. “The problem is that we learn from fossils by comparing them to others. When there are no other infant Miocene ape skulls to which to make those comparisons, your hands are tied.”

The remarkably complete skull was discovered in the Turkana Basin of northern Kenya 3 years ago. As the sun sank behind the Napudet Hills west of Lake Turkana, primate paleontologist Isaiah Nengo of De Anza College in Cupertino, California, and his team started walking back to their jeep. Kenyan fossil hunter John Ekusi raced ahead to smoke a cigarette. Suddenly he began circling in place. When Nengo caught up, he saw a dirt-clogged eye socket staring up at him. “There was this skull just sticking out of the ground,” Nengo recalls. “It was incredible because we had been going up and down that path for weeks and never noticed it.”

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3 comments on “Ancient infant ape skull sheds light on the ancestor of all humans and living apes

  • If any of you guys have 3D printers there is an excellent site here, it allows you to download Stereo lithography files (STL’s) of many fossils including quite a few hominid skulls. I’ve printed off a number at half size (they take many hours at full size) for my school science classes. Nothing beats being able to hold something in your hands and examine the differences. If you have a 3D printer think about printing a set for yourself and perhaps printing another set for your local high school.

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  • Excellent, Reckless.

    We’ve just been topping up on SLA fluid, so I might give this a go.

    Loading the files into a 3D CAD program could be pretty good for study (and cheaper) especially if you then section the model.

    (Their 3D viewer is pretty handy. Slicing and a measurement grid would make it fantastic.)

    Like the automeshing support towers, maybe there should be an auto interior open cell foaming option like real bone, to use less material and speed up printing???

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  • It seems there are more recent previously undiscovered ape species!

    An ape that is new to science has been discovered buried in an ancient tomb in China.

    The gibbon has already gone extinct, suggesting humans wiped out primate populations long before the modern age.

    The new gibbon, named Junzi imperialis, may be the first to vanish as a direct result of human actions, according to scientists led by the Zoological Society of London.

    The partial skull of the gibbon was found in a burial chamber dating from about 2,300 years ago in Shaanxi Provence, central China, alongside the bones of other animals, including lynx, leopards and a black bear.

    The tomb, and perhaps the ape, may have belonged to Lady Xia, the grandmother of China’s first emperor, Qin Shihuang, who ordered the building of the Great Wall of China and the Terracotta Warriors.

    Gibbons were seen as having noble characteristics in Chinese culture and were kept as luxury pets.

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