Cocktail of Brain Chemicals May Be a Key to What Makes Us Human

Jan 24, 2018

By Bret Stetka

Fossil records can tell us a lot about our evolutionary past: what our ancestors looked like, how they walked, what they ate. But what bits of bone don’t typically reveal is why humans evolved the way we did—why, compared with all other known species, we wound up capable of such complex thought, emotion and behavior.

A team of researchers has now used a novel technique to form a hypothesis on the origins of our rich cognitive abilities. They did so by profiling the chemicals buzzing around our brains. These compounds, known as neurotransmitters, are the signaling molecules responsible for key brain functions. Their research reveals that in comparison with other higher primates, our brains have unique neurotransmitter profiles that probably resulted in our enhanced cognition.

The authors of the new study—a multicenter effort led by Kent State University anthropologist C. Owen Lovejoy published January 22 in PNAS—began by measuring neurotransmitter levels in brain samples from humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, baboons and monkeys, all of whom had died of natural causes. Specifically, they tested levels in the striatum, a brain region involved in social behaviors and interactions. Compared with the other species tested, humans had markedly increased striatal dopamine activity. Among other functions, dopamine helps drive reward activity and social behaviors. In the striatum in particular it contributes to uniquely human abilities and behaviors like complicated social group formation and, in part, speech and language.

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2 comments on “Cocktail of Brain Chemicals May Be a Key to What Makes Us Human

  • @OP- They did so by profiling the chemicals buzzing around our brains.
    These compounds, known as neurotransmitters, are the signaling molecules responsible for key brain functions.
    Their research reveals that in comparison with other higher primates, our brains have unique neurotransmitter profiles that probably resulted in our enhanced cognition.

    These are crucial mechanisms in brain function, which is why drugs which alter them or substitute for them have radical effects on behaviour.

    Here is a link with a simple explanation which I often quote, when encountering people who believe cognition in the brain works on “ethereal soul-magic”!

    http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/synapse.html



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  • This is a very partial and curious account.

    It is correct that petrol is formed to provide motive power. But as a formless puddle it just produces a “Whump!” It is the mechanism that directs the whump to action that characterises the nature of the action.

    However, there may be a neuro-constructivist story to tell of structures formed because of the local eco-system. But an account of the “engine” is still needed.



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