"Elasmotherium sibiricum" by DiBgd is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Extinct ‘Siberian Unicorns’ Walked the Earth Alongside Modern Humans

Nov 27, 2018

By George Dvorsky

Weighing up to 7,700 pounds, Elasmotherium sibiricum—an extinct hairy rhino popularly known as the “Siberian unicorn”—was thought to have disappeared as long as 200,000 years ago. An updated fossil analysis suggests this formidable species was still around some 39,000 years ago, and that Ice Age conditions, not human hunters, contributed to its demise.

Paleontologists know of around 250 rhino species, of which only five still exist today. Among the most spectacular of these rhinos was Elasmotherium sibiricum—the Siberian unicorn. For the Neanderthals and modern humans who lived alongside and possibly hunted this massive creature in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, it must’ve been an impressive and deeply intimidating sight. Fossil evidence suggests Elasmotherium weighed over 3.5 tons, was covered in a thick coat of hair, and sported a horn of biblical portions, possibly as long as three feet (1 meter) in length.

Impressive though it may have been, the Siberian unicorns eventually died out. Previous fossil dating suggested an expiry date at some point between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago, long before the large-scale late Quaternary megafaunal extinction, which got rolling around 40,000 years ago. New research published this week in Nature Ecology & Evolution is now offering a more reliable estimate, dating the demise of Elasmotheriumat some point between 39,000 and 35,000 years ago. The extinction of the Siberian unicorns, therefore, can now be connected to the late Quaternary megafaunal extinction, an event that witnessed the end of the wooly mammoth, Irish elk, and saber-toothed cat.

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